Surface proteins of different Salmonella R mutants were labeled selectively by treating live bacteria with cycloheptaamylose-dansylchloride. The labeled proteins were extracted from the cells with 6 M urea and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. From the urea extract a 55-kilodalton protein common to numerous Salmonella strains could be isolated by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration free of lipopolysaccharide. Immunization of rabbits with isolated protein led to the formation of specific antibodies. Such antiprotein antisera could be employed in Western blots for the specific identification of the 55-kilodalton protein in bacterial extracts containing mixtures of different Salmonella proteins. The importance of this antigen is emphasized by antisera against acetone-killed Salmonella bacteria, showing a preferential interaction with the 55-kilodalton protein in Western blots. Active immunization of mice with the 55-kilodalton protein afforded significant protection against experimental infection with S. typhimurium.