The 31-member faculty for the Symposium included leaders of the major transplant centers in the United States, France, Japan, Spain, and Taiwan. Attendees included visitors from Japan, New Zealand, Australia, Singapore, France, the United Kingdom, Israel, Mexico, Columbia, Cyprus, Switzerland, India, Sweden, Italy, Taiwan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Greece, Canada, Chile, Korea, and the United States. The program was divided into 7 sessions: (I) umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) in adults—current results and future directions; (II) infectious disease complications and immune reconstitution after UCBT; (III) approaches to augment the efficacy of UCBT; (IV) collection, processing, banking, thawing, and administration of umbilical cord blood (UCB) units—quality issues; (V) transplantation in children/genetic disorders; (VI) multipotent stem cells and regenerative medicine; and (VII) accreditation issues and the report from the Institute of Medicine. The following comments emphasize significant aspects of selected presentations. Further details are provided in the abstracts that follow.