Abstract Between February 2005 and August 2006, we recorded acetabular component orientation in 90 patients (100 hips) who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), to determine whether using an alignment guide ensures accurate acetabular positioning. In the alignment-guide group (46 patients; 48 hips), a guide was placed on the pelvis, a Kirschner wire (K-wire) was attached to the guide, and orientation of the acetabular component was confirmed by both the surgeon and an assistant. In the control group (44 patients; 52 hips), a K-wire was not used and the angle was confirmed by the surgeon alone. Radiographic acetabular component inclination and anteversion and computed tomography anteversion were determined. There was no significant difference in mean component orientation between the 2 groups. However, the SD was significantly smaller in the alignment-guide group, showing that consistent acetabular component orientation in primary THA is highly reproducible when an acetabular alignment guide with an attached K-wire is used.