Abstract The Hox11 paralogous genes play critical roles in kidney development. They are expressed in the early metanephric mesenchyme and are required for the induction of ureteric bud formation and its subsequent branching morphogenesis. They are also required for the normal nephrogenesis response of the metanephric mesenchyme to inductive signals from the ureteric bud. In this report, we use microarrays to perform a comprehensive gene expression analysis of the Hoxa11/Hoxd11 mutant kidney phenotype. We examined E11.5, E12.5, E13.5 and E16.5 developmental time points. A novel high throughput strategy for validation of microarray data is described, using additional biological replicates and an independent microarray platform. The results identified 13 genes with greater than 3-fold change in expression in early mutant kidneys, including Hoxa11s, GATA6, TGFbeta2, chemokine ligand 12, angiotensin receptor like 1, cytochrome P450, cadherin5, and Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, Iroquois 3, EST A930038C07Rik, Meox2, Prkcn, and Slc40a1. Of interest, many of these genes, and others showing lower fold expression changes, have been connected to processes that make sense in terms of the mutant phenotype, including TGFbeta signaling, iron transport, protein kinase C function, growth arrest and GDNF regulation. These results identify the multiple molecular pathways downstream of Hox11 function in the developing kidney.