Abstract This review concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. Total bacterial counts of raw milk are described for several animal species, indicating the quality of the milk, then frequencies of occurrence of several human pathogenic microorganisms are considered and, finally, human cases of illness and outbreaks due to the consumption of raw milk from non-bovine species are covered. Only raw milk from goats and camels has so far been reported to be associated with outbreaks. Raw milk from horse and donkey may have a higher microbiological quality than raw milk from other animal species, although human pathogenic strains of Streptococcus are considered as a microbiological hazard for such milk. For raw milk from other animal species, the main microbiological hazards seem to be human pathogenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus and Brucella spp.