Abstract The type VI secretion systems (T6SS) have emerging roles in interspecies competition. In order to have an advantage in defense against other organisms, this system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa delivers a peptidoglycan amidase (Tse1) to the periplasmic space of a competitor. An immune protein (Tsi1) is also produced by the bacterium to protect itself from damage caused by Tse1. Tsi1 directly interacts with Tse1. We report that the crystal structure of Tse1 displays a common CHAP protein fold. Strikingly, our structures showed that the third residue in the catalytic triad may be novel as this residue type has not been observed previously.