We report on the frequency of multiple infections, generation of recombinants and consequences on disease progression in 35 HIV-1 infected individuals from 7 monogamous and 6 polygamous partnerships within a Rural Clinical Cohort in Uganda. The env-C2V3, gag-p24 and pol-IN genes were sequenced. Single genome amplified half genome sequences were used to map recombination breakpoints. Three participants were dually infected with subtypes A and D, one case with subtype A and A/D recombinant and the fifth with 2 phylogenetically distinct A/D recombinants. Occurrence of A/D recombination was observed in two multiple infected individuals. Rate of late stage WHO events using Cox regression was 3 times greater amongst multiple infected compared to singly infected individuals (hazard ratio 3.35; 95% CI 1.09, 10.3; p = 0.049). We have shown that polygamous relationships involving subtype discordant partnerships was a major contributor of multiple infections with generation of inter subtype recombinants in our cohort. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.