By targeting redox-sensitive amino acids in signaling proteins, the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of enzymes link reactive oxygen species to physiological processes. We previously analyzed the sequences of 107 Nox enzymes and identified conserved regions that are predicted to have important functions in Nox structure or activation. One such region is the cytosolic B-loop, which in Nox1–4 contains a conserved polybasic region. Previous studies of Nox2 showed that certain basic residues in the B-loop are important for activity and translocation of p47phox/p67phox, suggesting this region participates in subunit assembly. However, conservation of this region in Nox4, which does not require p47phox/p67phox, suggested an additional role for the B-loop in Nox function. Here, we show by mutation of Nox4 B-loop residues that this region is important for Nox4 activity. Fluorescence polarization detected binding between Nox4 B-loop peptide and dehydrogenase domain (Kd = 58 ± 12 nm). This interaction was weakened with Nox4 R96E B-loop corresponding to a mutation that also markedly decreases the activity of holo-Nox4. Truncations of the dehydrogenase domain localize the B-loop-binding site to the N-terminal half of the NADPH-binding subdomain. Similarly, the Nox2 B-loop bound to the Nox2 dehydrogenase domain, and both the Nox2 and Nox4 interactions were dependent on the polybasic region of the B-loop. These data indicate that the B-loop is critical for Nox4 function; we propose that the B-loop, by binding to the dehydrogenase domain, provides the interface between the transmembrane and dehydrogenase domains of Nox enzymes.