Nursing is a special branch of science that aims to provide sick as well as healthy people with all the basic human needs, i.e. medical, psychological and social care. There is also a very important connection between this branch and healthcare as a whole. This field, like many others, have undergone extensive development which to this day is not finished. This thesis is divided into four parts of six separate chapters, which have their further sections, mainly so that the readers might get better acquainted with my research. The first part deals with the development of nursing in Pelhřimov. And as I found out, in 2011 we commemorated the 800th anniversary of the birth of the Czech patron saint of nursing, St. Agnes of Bohemia. This woman dedicated her entire life to caring for the poor and sick and she founded a hospital. For us she is the representative of nursing which is compassionate, dedicated and educated. Therefore I have included this important milestone in history in the section on development. I have also included some information about the first hospitals in the region and tried to get information on development of the population in Pelhřimov. In this section, I was also interested in the history of nursing and social care in the Černovice region and Horní Cerekev region. I chose these areas mainly because the air in them according to studies resembles alpine environment. Thanks to this fact the first sanatoriums for children were established there. In the second part I deal with the foundation of hospitals in the Pelhřimov region, namely up to 1945 through the year 1946 until 2012. There are three hospitals in different towns. I was interested in building these hospitals and also in gradual development of home care in them. Then I paid attention to their modernising and then centralising in the Pelhřimov hospital. Instead of some hospitals that passed out of existence because of this process, long-term care hospitals have been established. In the third part I concentrated on the work of nurses in the given hospitals from 1945 up to present day. At the same time I attach the fourth part which was drafted in the form of interviews with retired nurses, these helped me to organise the development of nursing care from the beginning until today. I have incorporated full interviews with them in the work. I based my thesis on information which I received from archival documents about the history of hospitals in this region, personal encounters with several nurses, and finally several works by MD. Ivo Balík and MD. Jiří Machyán.