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HI observations of the high-velocity cloud in the direction of M 92

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  • We Present Wide-Field Neutral Hydrogen (H I) Lovell Telescope Multibeam
  • And Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory Hi Synthesis Observations
  • Of The High Velocity Cloud (Hvc) Located In The General Direction Of The Globular Cluster M92
  • This Cloud Is Part Of The Larger Complex C And Lies At Velocities Between Similar To -80 And -130 Km
  • The Lovell Telescope Observations
  • Of Resolution 12 Arcmin Spatially And 3
  • 0 Km S(-1) In Velocity
  • Fully Sampling A 3
  • 1 Degrees X 12
  • 6 Degrees Ra-Dec Grid
  • Have Found That This Part Of Hvc Complex C Comprises Two Main Condensations
  • Lying Approximately North-South In Declination
  • Separated By Similar To2 Degrees And Being Parallel To The Galactic Plane
  • At This Resolution
  • Peak Values Of The Brightness Temperature And Hi Column Density Of Similar To1
  • 4 K And Similar To5 X 10(19) Cm(-2) Are Determined
  • With Relatively High Values Of The Full Width Half Maximum Velocity (Fwhm) Of Similar To 22 Km S(-1)
  • Equivalent To A Gas Kinetic Temperature
  • In The Absence Of Turbulence And Geometric Effects Of Similar To 10 000 K
  • Each Of These Properties
  • As Well As The Sizes Of The Clouds
  • Are Similar In The Two Components
  • The Drao Observations
  • Towards The Northern Hvc Condensation
  • Are The First High-Resolution Hi Spectra Of Complex C
  • When Smoothed To A Resolution Of 3 Arcmin
  • They Identify Several Hi Intensity Peaks With Column Densities In The Range 4-7 X 10(19) Cm(-2)
  • Further Smoothing Of These Data To 6 Arcmin Resolution Tentatively Indicates That Parts Of The Hvc C
  • Of Similar Brightness Temperature
  • Separated By Similar To7 Km S(-1) In Velocity
  • And With Fwhm Velocity Widths Of Similar To5-7 Km S(-1)
  • No Iras 60 Or 100 Micron Flux Is Associated With The M92 Hvc
  • Cloud Properties Are Briefly Discussed And Compared To Previous Observations Of Hvcs
  • Biology
  • Medicine


1 Ludwig Eichinger and Francisco Rivero (eds.), Dictyostelium discoideum Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology 983, DOI 10.1007/978-1-62703-302-2_1, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013 Chapter 1 The Amoebozoa Christina Schilde and Pauline Schaap Abstract The model organism Dictyostelium discoideum is a member of the Amoebozoa, one of the six major divisions of eukaryotes. Amoebozoa comprise a wide variety of amoeboid and fl agellate organisms with single cells measuring from 5 μ m to several meters across. They have adopted many different life styles and sexual behaviors and can live in all but the most extreme environments. This chapter provides an overview of Amoebozoan diversity and compares roads towards multicellularity within the Amoebozoa with inven- tions of multicellularity in other protist divisions. The chapter closes with a scenario for the evolution of Dictyostelid multicellularity from an Amoebozoan stress response. Key words Amoebozoa , Protista , Aggregative multicellularity , Encystation , Sporulation , Morphogenesis , Cyclic AMP signaling , Phylogeny The Dictyostelids have fascinated biologists for over 150 years with their ability to assemble up to a million amoebas into a tactile migrating organism, which, after seeking out a site for spore dis- persal, transforms into a well-balanced fruiting structure. The development of a range of molecular genetic and cell biological procedures for the species Dictyostelium discoideum over the past 30 years has established this species as an important model organ- ism for the study of fundamental cell biological and developmental processes ( 1 ) . More recently, the evolution of social behavior and the study of genes associated with human diseases and bacterial infections have been added to the repertoire of research questions that can be addressed in Dictyostelia ( 2 ) . With putative applications of research in mind,

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