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Regulation of Antioxidant Response Element–Dependent Induction of Detoxifying Enzyme Synthesis

Elsevier Science & Technology
DOI: 10.1016/s0076-6879(04)78018-0
  • Quinones
  • Cellular Signaling
  • And Modulation Of Gene Expression
  • Biology
  • Ecology
  • Geography
  • Physics


Publisher Summary An increase in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from the various sources is known to cause oxidative stress and have a profound impact on the survival of all living organisms. All the cell types, either prokaryotic or eukaryotic, face oxidative stress and must contain defensive mechanisms for their protection. Most of the studies on the mechanisms of protection against oxidative stress have come from the study of the bacteria Escherichia coli. A variety of oxidases, cellular respiration, and physiological responses including neutrophil activation produce ROS as by-products. Long-wavelength ultraviolet (UV) light (UVA and UVB) and radiolysis of water, caused by exposure to environmental radiation, leads to the formation of ROS. Interestingly, several ARE-binding negative transcription factors, in addition to positive factors, are also identified, which rapidly bring down the induced enzymes to their normal level. This may be because it is always necessary to have a small amount of ROS present to keep the cellular defenses active. As the activation of detoxifying enzymes and other defensive proteins leads to significant reduction in the levels of superoxide and other free radicals, the cell may require negative regulatory factors such as the small Mafs and c-Fos to keep the expression of defensive proteins “in check.”

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