Abstract Background: There have been numerous reports regarding serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in various disorders; however, the validities of such biomarkers for more precise diagnoses and prognosis estimates remain to be determined, especially in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. Methods: Serum/CSF S100B, neuron-specific enolase, and total tau (tTau) were measured in various acute pediatric neurological disorders, and their usefulness for diagnostic and prognostic predictions was validated using receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Results: A total of 336 serum and 200 CSF specimens from 313 patients were examined, and we identified statistically significant differences that were relevant from diagnostic and prognostic viewpoints. CSF and serum tTau levels could be good predictors for diagnosis (CSF tTau; AUC=0.76) and prognosis (serum tTau; AUC=0.78). Conclusions: Both CSF and serum tTau levels could be useful for precise diagnostic and prognostic estimations in acute pediatric neurological disorders. Further studies are needed to clarify the clinical significance of such biomarkers.