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Trace analysis of acids and bases by conductometric titration with multiparametric non-linear regression

Authors
Journal
Talanta
0039-9140
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
69
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2005.09.025
Keywords
  • Acid–Base
  • Conductometric Titration
  • Multiparametric Nonlinear Regression
  • Levenberg–Marquardt
  • Synthetic Rainwater
  • Acid Rain
Disciplines
  • Computer Science

Abstract

Abstract A chemometric method for analysis of conductometric titration data was introduced to extend its applicability to lower concentrations and more complex acid–base systems. Auxiliary pH measurements were made during the titration to assist the calculation of the distribution of protonable species on base of known or guessed equilibrium constants. Conductivity values of each ionized or ionizable species possibly present in the sample were introduced in a general equation where the only unknown parameters were the total concentrations of (conjugated) bases and of strong electrolytes not involved in acid–base equilibria. All these concentrations were adjusted by a multiparametric nonlinear regression (NLR) method, based on the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. This first conductometric titration method with NLR analysis (CT-NLR) was successfully applied to simulated conductometric titration data and to synthetic samples with multiple components at concentrations as low as those found in rainwater (∼10 μmol L −1). It was possible to resolve and quantify mixtures containing a strong acid, formic acid, acetic acid, ammonium ion, bicarbonate and inert electrolyte with accuracy of 5% or better.

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