Functional evaluation of chemically modified human erythrocytes has led to the proposal that amino acid residue E681 of the band 3 anion exchanger AE1 lies on the anion translocation pathway and is a proton carrier required for H+/SO42− cotransport. We have tested in Xenopus oocytes the functional consequences of mutations in the corresponding residue E699 of mouse AE1. Most mutations tested abolished AE1-mediated Cl− influx and efflux. Only the E699Q mutation increased stilbene disulfonate-sensitive efflux and influx of SO42−. E699Q-mediated Cl− influx was activated by elevation of intracellular SO42−, but E699Q-mediated Cl− efflux was undetectable. The DNDS (4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid) sensitivity of E699Q-mediated SO42− efflux was indistinguishable from that of wt AE1-mediated Cl− efflux. The extracellular anion selectivity of E699Q-mediated SO42− efflux was similar to that of wt AE1-mediated Cl− efflux. The stoichiometry of E699Q-mediated exchange of extracellular Cl− with intracellular SO42− was 1:1. Whereas SO42− injection into oocytes expressing wt AE1 produced little change in membrane potential or resistance, injection of SO42−, but not of Cl− or gluconate, into oocytes expressing E699Q depolarized the membrane by 17 mV and decreased membrane resistance by 66%. Replacement of bath Cl− with isethionate caused a 28-mV hyperpolarization in SO42−-loaded oocytes expressing E699Q, but had no effect on oocytes expressing wt AE1. Extracellular Cl−-dependent depolarization of SO42−-preloaded oocytes was blocked by DNDS. AE1 E699Q-mediated inward current measured in the presence of extracellular Cl− was of magnitude sufficient to account for measured 35SO42− efflux. Thus, AE1 E699Q-mediated SO42−/ Cl− exchange operated largely, if not exclusively, as an electrogenic, asymmetric, 1:1 anion exchange. The data confirm the proposal that E699 resides on or contributes to the integrity of the anion translocation pathway of AE1. A single amino acid change in the sequence of AE1 converted electroneutral to electrogenic anion exchange without alteration of SO42−/Cl− exchange stoichiometry.