Studies examining maternal infection as a risk factor for neurological disorders in the offspring have suggested that altered maternal immune status during pregnancy can be considered as an adverse event in prenatal development. Infection occurring in the mother during the gestational period has been implicated in multiple neurological effects. The current manuscript will consider the issue of immune/inflammatory conditions during prenatal development where adverse outcomes have been linked to maternal systemic infection. The discussions will focus primary on white matter and oligodendrocytes as they have been identified as target processes. This white matter damage occurs in very early preterm infants and in various other human diseases currently being examined for a linkage to maternal or early developmental immune status. The intent is to draw attention to the impact of altered immune status during pregnancy on the offspring for the consideration of such contributing factors to the general assessment of developmental neurotoxicology.