Abstract The development of multiplex and flexible tests allowing the simultaneous analysis of pathogens presenting a transfusional risk is a real challenge. Current miniaturized platforms have been particularly marked by microarrays. These microsystems allow the optical detection of hundreds of individual targets simultaneously. However, they suffer from a low sensitivity and their combination with a preliminary target amplification step such as PCR is necessary. The variable level of expression of the infectious genomes of interest and their large diversity complicate multiplex amplification. Finally simultaneous analysis of multiple blood-transmitted agents poses numerous difficulties in diagnosis that remain unresolved by currently available technologies. Until recently, scientific and technological advances for pathogen detection have focused on target amplification and optical detection steps. Today, sample preparation is recognized as a critical area to improve. Nanotechnologies can reach the single-cell or molecular scale and consequently overcome several current technological obstacles. They offer new technological tools for improving sample preparation but also for avoiding target amplification and the current fluorescent labeling. The combination of nano-objects and nano-systems in current technologies offers new possibilities for potential applications in the detection of infectious agents.