Excimer laser sclerostomy is a new glaucoma filtration procedure in which the argon fluoride excimer laser at 193 nm is delivered ab externo through a modified open mask system incorporating an en-face air jet to dry the target area and preserve hemostasis during ablation and a conjunctival plication mechanism, which allows the conjunctival and scleral wounds created by through-and-through ablation to separate once the mask is removed. No preparatory dissection of the conjunctiva is required. Five 200-microns and five 500-microns sclerostomies were formed by ablation at a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz and a fluence per pulse of 400 mJ/cm2 in fellow eyes of five rhesus monkeys with experimental glaucoma. Overall, seven of the ten eyes attained a functional result, with intraocular pressures remaining below 21 mmHg for 6 +/- 1 days and rising to the pre-operative level after 10 +/- 3 days without adjunctive antifibroblast medication. The duration of filtration for 200-microns and 500-microns sclerostomies was similar, and parallels that previously observed for posterior lip sclerectomy in the same animal model. The three eyes with no functional result all had incorrectly positioned sclerostomies. Choroidal detachment and significant shallowing of the anterior chamber did not occur. Excimer laser sclerostomy appears to be a viable technique for filtration, provided that mask placement is accurate.