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Focal adhesion kinase is essential for costamerogenesis in cultured skeletal muscle cells

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Developmental Biology
0012-1606
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
293
Issue
1
Pages
38–52
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.12.040
Source
Polaris

Abstract

A central question in muscle biology is how costameres are formed and become aligned with underlying myofibrils in mature tissues. Costameres are composed of focal adhesion proteins, including vinculin and paxillin, and anchor myofibril Z-bands to the sarcolemma. In the present study, we investigated the process of costamere formation (" costamerogenesis ") in differentiating primary mouse myoblasts. Using vinculin and paxillin as costameric markers, we found that two additional focal adhesion components, α5β1 integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), are associated with costameres. We have characterized costamerogenesis as occurring in three distinct stages based on the organizational pattern of these costameric proteins. We show that both costamerogenesis and myofibrillogenesis are initiated at sites of membrane contacts with the extracellular matrix and that their maturation is tightly coupled. To test the importance of FAK signaling in these processes, we analyzed cells expressing a dominant negative form of FAK (dnFAK). When cells expressing dnFAK were induced to differentiate, both costamerogenesis and myofibrillogenesis were disrupted although the expression of constituent proteins was not inhibited. Likewise, inhibiting FAK activity by reducing FAK levels using an siRNA approach also resulted in an inhibition of costamerogenesis and myofibrillogenesis. The relationship between costamere and myofibril formation was tested further by treating myotube cultures with potassium or tetrodotoxin to block contraction and disrupt myofibril organization. This also resulted in inhibition of costamere maturation. We present a model of costamerogenesis whereby signaling through FAK is essential for both normal costamerogenesis and normal myofibrillogenesis which are tightly coupled during skeletal myogenesis.

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