Proline accumulation is a well-known response to water deficits in leaves. The primary cause of accumulation is proline synthesis. Δ1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PCR) catalyzes the final reaction of proline synthesis. To determine the subcellular location of PCR, protoplasts were made from leaves of Pisum sativum L., lysed, and fractionated by differential and Percoll density gradient centrifugation. PCR activity comigrated on the gradient with the activity of the chloroplast stromal marker NADPH-dependent triose phosphate dehydrogenase. We conclude that PCR is located in chloroplasts, and therefore that chloroplasts can synthesize proline. PCR activities from chloroplasts and etiolated shoots were compared. PCR activity from both extracts is stimulated at least twofold by 100 millimolar KCl or 10 millimolar MgCl2. The pH profiles of PCR activity from both extracts reveal two separate optima at pH 6.5 and 7.5. Native isoelectric focusing gels of sampies from etiolated tissue reveal a single band of PCR activity with a pl of 7.8.