Abstract We report the 6-year radiographic follow-up of a phalangeal brown tumor in a patient with severe hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic renal failure treated with hemodialysis. The phalangeal lesion increased in size during the first 3 years, until the patient finally accepted to undergo parathyroidectomy. The initial radiographic change was a small intracortical lytic area. Two years later, an expansile cystic lesion was visible in the phalanx, and computed tomography showed a cortical defect. Ossification of the lesion occurred over the 2.5 years following parathyroidectomy. The epidemiology, radiographic changes and post-treatment evolution of brown tumor in dialysed patients is reviewed. Surgical parathyroidectomy is the standard treatment for brown tumor complicating secondary hyperparathyroidism. The usefulness and limitations of treatment with vitamin D analogs, recently reported in a few case reports, are discussed.