Predicting the suitability and reliability of traits associated with juvenile growth as indirect selection criteria for choosing future broodstock requires accurate and repeatable estimates of genetic (co)variation for growth traits at different ages. We compared juvenile wet weight of black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri (Munro) at 6 months of age with wet weight, dressed weight, fillet yield and gonad weight in tagged individuals at 18 months of age, following 12 months of farm grow-out. Fish survival and tag retention was high, and there was significant among-family variation for all traits. The phenotypic correlations among wet weight, dressed weight and fillet yield at 18 months of age were very high (0.93-0.97) and similar to their genetic correlations (0.96). Importantly, the phenotypic correlations between wet weight at 6 months and wet weight, dressed weight and fillet yield at 18 months were high (0.63-0.65), and so too were their genetic correlations (0.66-0.73), indicating the potential for using wet weight in the hatchery as a selection criterion for improved weight and meat yield of fish at harvest. Gonad weight shared little or no phenotypic or genetic correlation with these other traits, suggesting that selection for faster growing fish will not affect fecundity or sexual maturation rate. It appears, however, that cultured black bream do become sexually mature more rapidly than wild fish, as 78% of all fish harvested in this study had developing or mature gonads, whereas less than 50% of fish in wild populations are reproductively mature by the same age. Precocious sexual development may lead to uncontrolled spawning in grow-out ponds and a potential loss of selection gains.