The words denoting body parts, as a prototypical model of the "whole-part" opposition, share common characteristics in many different languages and at the same time have their own language-specific aspects. The words and the phrase of body parts are necessary for understanding how human cognitive structure and his actual experience affect the language structure. This paper deals with the problem how body parts concept, as a conceptual category formulated in the human cognitive process, is reflected in semantic, lexical, syntactic level of the Russian language. First of all, Russian expressions of body parts have not only literal meaning of body parts but also different derivative meanings concerning the structure, form, function and position of the relevant body parts. It is noticeable that many idioms with body parts words denote human emotion and inner space in Russian. Secondly, it is observed in Russian as well as in many other languages that if the body part is under the influence of some acts, its owner himself as a "whole" is considered to be affected by the act as well. This is reflected in the possessive structure of outer subject in Russian. The Russian language system shows very well the fact that human body is closely related to the human cognitive system. It is because human body is the first and the closest object of real world experience, and the human is the subject of the language, i.e., the creator of the utterances. The expressions of the body parts can be one of the most important tools for analysis of the relation between the language and the mind. Therefore the more concern is required in this area, especially from the viewpoint of the comparative linguistics.