Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of fiber-reinforcement on the fracture strength and fatigue resistance of resin-based composites. Methods One hundred rectangular bar-shaped specimens (2 mm × 2 mm × 25 mm) made of resin-based composite were prepared in a stainless steel split-mould: (i) thirty specimens of particulate filler composite (PFC) (Filtek Z100, 3 M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), (ii) thirty specimens of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) (Everstick C&B, Sticktech Ltd., Turku, Finland) and (iii) forty specimens of PFC and FRC combined in two longitudinal layers of equal thickness. Each specimen was trimmed into a cylindrical hourglass shape. The fracture strength (cantilever beam test, n = 10) and the fatigue resistance (rotating cantilever beam test; staircase method: 10 4 cycles, 1.2 Hz, n = 20) were determined. Fracture strength, fatigue resistance and work-of-fracture were calculated. The fracture surfaces of failed specimens were analyzed with SEM. Data was analyzed by logistic regression, one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test and, a Student's t-test. Results ANOVA revealed that fiber-reinforcement had significant effect ( P < 0.001) on fracture strength, fatigue resistance, and work-of-fracture. Student's t-test showed significant differences ( P < 0.001) in fatigue resistance compared to fracture strength. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the following conclusions can be drawn (i) the fatigue resistance of resin-based composites is lower than their fracture strength and (ii) FRC are more fatigue resistant than PFC or combinations of FRC and PFC.