The epsilon-subunit of ATP synthase from bovine heart mitochondria is assembled into the extrinsic membrane sector, F1-ATPase. The mature protein is 50 amino acid residues in length and its function is unknown. It is a nuclear gene product that is imported into the organelle. A mixture of 64 oligonucleotides 17 bases long, designed on the basis of the known protein sequence, was synthesized and used as a hybridization probe to isolate a cognate cDNA clone from a bovine library. The DNA sequence of this clone was determined, and the protein sequence of the epsilon-subunit deduced from it agrees exactly with that determined by direct sequence analysis of the protein isolated from bovine hearts. The bovine cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to examine the expression of the epsilon-subunit in various bovine tissues. mRNAs related to the cDNA are found in all of these tissues, and no evidence was obtained of the presence of mRNAs for the epsilon-subunit with similar coding sequences and dissimilar 3' non-coding regions. By hybridization experiments with digests of DNA from cow, man and rat it has been shown that sequences related to the bovine cDNA are present in the genomes of all three species. More than one related sequence was detected in all cases, indicating the presence in all three genomes of more than one gene and/or pseudogenes.