In our republic, occupational exposure to asbestos has been restricted to jobs concerned with disposal of products, materials and buildings containing asbestos, and research work studying asbestos fibres. The reason consists in health risks as all kinds of asbestos belong to high-risk carcinogens. The asbestos fibre related diseases should be reported. All data connected are kept in the National Institute of Public Health (NIPH) in Prague. The purpose of this study was to find out how much people are aware of the risks related to asbestos and find people who suffered from asbestos dust-induced disease, i.e. mesothelioma of pleura. The quantitative method was used to summarise information on asbestos-induced disease occurence in 1970-2010 available in the National Institute of Public Health in Prague. Along with that, the work maps the population awareness of asbestos risks. The thesis itself can be divided into two parts. The first one contains information based on data collection while the other part deals with data of NIPH in Prague. Two hypotheses were predicted: Hypothesis H1: People are aware of the material containing asbestos. Hypothesis H2: People are aware of negative impact of asbestos on human health. Both hypotheses were proved. Three hypotheses were suggested in the other part: Hypothesis H3: Latency, the time between first exposure to manifestation of disease, is never less than 20 years. Hypothesis H4: Incidence of mesothelioma of pleura and peritoneum is higher in people aged 60-69. Hypothesis H5: Smoking affects the course of the disease negatively. Hypotheses H3 and H4 were proved. Hypothesis H5 cannot be neither proved or disproved. Although the number of smokers among mesothelioma patients was higher, there is no evidence of negative effect of smoking on the disease. To prove this hypothesis, the data colllection should be larger. Findings of the study proved the time of exposure to asbestos fibres does not affect the occurence of this disease. The findings can be used in further research studies.