Publisher Summary This chapter studies the genus Papiliotrema. In asexual reproduction yeast cells are ovoid and budding is polar. In sexual reproduction it is seen that the sexual structures are formed in the filamentous state and have only been observed in nature. This chapter further examines physiology, biochemistry, and phylogenetic placement. The type species and accepted species mentioned is Papiliotema bandonii. The systematic discussion of the species includes growth on 5% malt extract agar, Dalmau plate culture on corn meal agar, sexual state, fermentation, gene sequence accession numbers, cell carbohydrates, origin of the strains studied, type strain, systematics, ecology, biotechnology, and agriculture and food.