Abstract The effect on flight performance of various superficial lesions of the pars intercerebralis in and around the area of the MNSC (median groups of cerebral neurosecretory cells) have been studied 18 hr after surgery. Only lesions involving areas immediately lateral to the MNSC produce an impairment of flight performance. The release of adipokinetic hormone during flight was studied in these locusts by measuring the changes in haemolymph lipid during flight. It has not been possible to identify any of the areas tested as being concerned with the control of the release of adipokinetic hormone since lipid mobilization was not prevented by any of the operations studied. The poor flight performance in locusts in which the MNSC were destroyed by cautery on day 1 of adult life can be prevented by regular topical application of a synthetic juvenile hormone analogue. It is argued that the effects of removal of the MNSC on the development of flight performance are most likely a consequence of reduced activity of the corpora allata.