Publisher Summary The chapter presents research and theoretical formulation that grew out of a controversy over the theory of compliance, justification, and cognitive change. The dissonance theory derivation is based on the assumption that the person will experience dissonance if his or her behavior is not sufficiently justified—the lower the extrinsic incentive (for example, money) offered the subject in the experiments, the less justification he or she has for saying something opposed to his or her belief. The chapter attempts to reconcile those studies that obtained support for the dissonance derivation with those studies that did not and provides useful synthesis of the conflicting points of view and of the apparently contradictory sets of findings. It describes a formulation of the necessary and sufficient conditions for dissonance effects that is consistent with a post hoc analysis of a number of studies done by others and is also supported by several studies, which grew out of the formulation. But there are already several reformulations of dissonance theory that achieve similar ends. Alternatives to the framework and some implications for future research have been discussed.