Abstract The diuretic and sodium channel inhibitor, amiloride, has been shown to increase atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binding several fold in certain cell types, but in other tissues it causes only marginal increases in specific ANP binding. In the present report we compare the effects of amiloride on ANP binding in bovine endothelial cells and human thyroid-derived cells, two cell types which differ in their predominant ANP receptor subtype. We found that amiloride (10 −3 M) increased specific [ 125I]ANP binding to 750% above control in endothelial cells, but among several thyroid cultures tested the maximal increase in ANP binding with amiloride was only 23% above control. Moreover, most of the thyroid cultures showed decreased ANP binding in the presence of amiloride. The increased ANP binding in endothelial cells exposed to amiloride is best explained by an increased affinity of the receptor for its ligand since the drug lowered the K d of ANP binding from 0.73 nM to 0.16 nM without affecting the receptor binding capacity. The degree of amiloride enhancement of ANP binding in endothelial cells is increased with time in culture (200% above control at 5 days, 750% above at 30 days) suggesting the increase of an amiloride-sensitive receptor relative to an amiloride-insensitive receptor. The fact that the amiloride-induced decrease in ANP binding in thyroid cells was not exacerbated by pre-incubation with amiloride suggested that the observed amiloride effect was not due to increased receptor internalization with the drug. These results support a hypothesis that ANP receptor subtypes associated with separate signal transduction mechanisms might be modulated in an opposite manner by the binding of amiloride.