Abstract Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the brain were immunohistochemically examined in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and aging using anti-AGE antibody recognizing mainly carboxymethyllysine. AGE positive staining diffusely located in the neuronal perikarya of hippocampus and parahippocampus in AD and aged brains without dementia, but not in young brains less than 17 years of age. Extra-neuroperikaryal AGE deposits were also detected in the neuropil of AD and aged brains. The extra-neuroperikaryal AGE deposits markedly increased in AD brains as compared to aged brains. These AGE-positive deposits in the neuropil were not related to the senile plaque identified by anti- β amyloid protein antibody. These findings suggest a potential link of AGE accumulation in the central nervous system to the aging process of neurons and the degenerating process of AD neurons.