Introduction The epidemiology of human bocavirus (HBoV) infections has not been described in Greece, a south-eastern European country. To define the epidemiological profile and the clinical characteristics associated with HBoV infection in a population of children hospitalized with respiratory tract infection. Material and methods During a one-year period throat swab samples were collected from 370 previously healthy children, aged 14 days to 13 years, admitted to two different paediatric wards because of respiratory tract infection. Samples were tested for HBoV by PCR amplifying a part of the NS1 gene. Results Human bocavirus was detected in 12 children (3.2%). Four of the 12 cases were co-infections, 3 of them with influenza A and 1 with coronavirus OC43. Cases were observed only during the cold months. The mean age of children was 1.8 years (range 2 months to 4 years). The most common symptoms were fever, cough and various degrees of respiratory distress. All children were clinically diagnosed as having lower respiratory tract infections, mainly pneumonia and acute laryngotracheobronchitis, and recovered uneventfully. Conclusions HBoV infections occur in Greece mostly among very young children. They accounted for 3.2% of children hospitalized with acute respiratory disease. Cases were observed only in late autumn to early spring.