Background The number of operations for patients with malignant tumors receiving long-term hemodialysis has been increasing; however, there are only few reports about pulmonary resection for the patients with lung cancer. Methods Between 1995 and 2009, 11 hemodialysis patients (6 men, 5 women; mean age, 66.4 years) with non-small cell lung cancer underwent pulmonary resection at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated their postoperative clinical outcomes and long-term results. Results The underlying kidney conditions included nephrosclerosis in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 3, glomerulonephritis in 1, and polycystic kidney in 1; 3 patients had undergone nephrectomy. The median duration of hemodialysis preoperatively was 5.0 years. Three patients had been treated for previous carcinoma. The histopathologic diagnoses were adenocarcinoma in 9 patients and squamous cell carcinoma in 2. Procedures included lobectomy in 9, pneumonectomy in 1, and wedge resection in 1. There were no in-hospital deaths. Postoperative morbidity included 2 cases of pneumonia and 1 of chylothorax. At the time of our investigation, 6 patients were dead; 2 of cancer and 4 of noncancer causes. The overall 5-year survival rate of 11 patients was 28.0%. Conclusions Hemodialysis is not a contraindication to lung resection, despite the high morbidity rate. Surgical treatments, including lobectomy, remain one of effective treatments for patients on hemodialysis with lung cancer.