Abstract Effectors of muscle phosphofructokinase show opposing action on the activity of the enzyme depending upon the concentration of phosphoryl donor employed in the assay. Established inhibitors, such as citrate, activate at low ATP or ITP concentrations while known activators, such as AMP, ADP, and cyclic AMP inhibit at low ATP or ITP concentrations. Inorganic phosphate, on the other hand, activates at all substrate concentrations. The paradoxical effects at low substrate concentrations are dependent upon the order of addition of reaction components. A model is proposed to explain these and other regulatory phenomena of phosphofructokinase.