The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes such as success of the initial therapy, failure of outpatient treatment, and death in outpatient treatment during intravenous antimicrobial therapy in patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) and hematological malignancies. In addition, clinical and laboratory data and the Multinational Association for Supportive Care of Cancer index (MASCC) were compared with failure of outpatient treatment and death. In a retrospective study, we evaluated FN following chemotherapy events that were treated initially with cefepime, with or without teicoplanin and replaced by levofloxacin after 48 h of defervescence in patients with good general conditions and ANC > 500/mm(3). Of the 178 FN episodes occurred in 126 patients, we observed success of the initial therapy in 63.5% of the events, failure of outpatient treatment in 20.8%, and death in 6.2%. The success rate of oral levofloxacin after defervescence was 99% (95 out of 96). Using multivariate analysis, significant risks of failure of outpatient treatment were found to be smoking (odds ratio (OR) 3.14, confidence interval (CI) 1.14-8.66; p = 0.027) and serum creatinine levels > 1.2 mg/dL (OR 7.97, CI 2.19-28.95; p = 0.002). With regard to death, the risk found was oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry < 95% (OR 5.8, IC 1.50-22.56; p = 0.011). Using the MASCC index, 165 events were classified as low risk and 13 as high risk. Failure of outpatient treatment was reported in seven (53.8%) high-risk and 30 (18.2%) low-risk episodes (p = 0.006). In addition, death occurred in seven (4.2%) low-risk and four (30.8%) high-risk events (p = 0.004). Ours results show that MASCC index was able to identify patients with high risk. In addition, non-smoking, serum creatinine levels a parts per thousand currency sign1.2 mg/dL, and oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry a parts per thousand yen95% were protection factors.