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Understanding CHOKe: throughput and spatial characteristics

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A recently proposed active queue management, CHOKe, is stateless, simple to implement, yet surprisingly effective in protecting TCP from UDP flows. We present an equilibrium model of TCP/CHOKe. We prove that, provided the number of TCP flows is large, the UDP bandwidth share peaks at (e+1)/sup -1/=0.269 when UDP input rate is slightly larger than link capacity, and drops to zero as UDP input rate tends to infinity. We clarify the spatial characteristics of the leaky buffer under CHOKe that produce this throughput behavior. Specifically, we prove that, as UDP input rate increases, even though the total number of UDP packets in the queue increases, their spatial distribution becomes more and more concentrated near the tail of the queue, and drops rapidly to zero toward the head of the queue. In stark contrast to a nonleaky FIFO buffer where UDP bandwidth shares would approach 1 as its input rate increases without bound, under CHOKe, UDP simultaneously maintains a large number of packets in the queue and receives a vanishingly small bandwidth share, the mechanism through which CHOKe protects TCP flows.

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