Abstract Relativistic jets are a common property of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Understanding jet physical properties is an essential precursor to understanding the mechanisms of energy transport, and ultimately, how energy is extracted from the central black hole. In this paper, I highlight recent developments from Chandra and HST observations of kpc-scale jets in AGN, with particular emphasis on our survey of 17 radio jets in a sample of FRII radio galaxies. These observations show that (1) X-ray and optical emission is common from kpc-scale jets, (2) a large fraction of the bolometric luminosity is emitted at X-rays, and (3) in most sources, a candidate emission process for the X-rays is inverse Compton scattering of the Cosmic Microwave Background off the relativistic electrons in the jet. If the latter scenario holds, the implication is that jets are still relativistic on kpc scales.