Abstract Tryptase and chymase are mast cell (MC)-specific proteases, which influence in the activation of inflammatory cells. In this study, we quantified tryptase- or chymase-expressing MCs in the oesophaguses of Chagas patients, and searched for a correlation between those data with area of nerve fibres that expressed either PGP9.5 (pan-marker) or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), which is a neuromediator that has anti-inflammatory activity. Samples from the oesophaguses of 14 individuals Trypanosoma cruzi-infected and from six uninfected individuals were analysed by immunohistochemistry. It was demonstrated that the number of tryptase-IR MCs in infected individuals increased when compared with controls, regardless of whether the individuals had megaoesophagus, whereas the number of chymase-IR MCs increased only in infected individuals without megaoesophagus. Negative correlations were observed between tryptase-IR MCs and the density of nerve fibres that expressed VIP or PGP 9.5-IR. The participation of chymase and tryptase in this type of immunopathology is discussed.