PURPOSE: To examine all lymphoproliferative lesions of the ocular adnexa diagnosed in Iceland during 1983-2000 and to determine whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to determine clonality are helpful in characterizing these lesions. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with lymphoproliferative lesions in the ocular adnexa in the years 1983-2000 were included in the study. Polymerase chain reaction studies for clonality were performed on these lesions. RESULTS: Fifteen cases were identified. Seven were classified as inflammatory pseudotumour, one as lymphoid hyperplasia, four as atypical lymphoid hyperplasia and three as lymphoma. Of 12 cases examined by PCR, three were monoclonal for B-cells (one lymphoma, one inflammatory pseudotumour and one atypical lymphoid hyperplasia) while the remaining lesions (including two lymphomas) appeared polyclonal. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that analysis of clonality by PCR methods may be of limited use in classifying lymphoproliferative lesions of the ocular adnexa as benign or malignant. These results underscore the importance of using several techniques when determining clonality.