Abstract This paper deals with the construction, physical interpretation and application of a uniform high-frequency representation of array Green’s functions (AGFs) for planar rectangular phased arrays of dipoles. An AGF is the basic constituent for the full-wave description of electromagnetic radiation from large periodic structures. For efficient treatment of high-frequency phenomena, the AGF obtained by direct summation over the contributions from the individual radiators is globally restructured via the Poisson sum formula into a series of propagating and evanescent Floquet waves (FWs) together with corresponding FW-modulated diffracted waves, which arise from FW scattering at the array edges and vertexes. These results are obtained by high-frequency uniform asymptotics applied to the wave integrals generated by Poisson summation in the spatial or spectral domains. The final algorithm is physically appealing, numerically accurate, and efficient, owing to the rapid convergence of both the FW series and the series of corresponding FW-modulated diffracted fields away from the array plane. The use of the asymptotic AGF in the full-wave analysis of large slot arrays is discussed, with the inclusion of numerical results.