Background: In Mexico, cervical uterine cancer (CUC) is one of the leading causes of death among women, however a low degree of participation in the early detection programs has been found. This study is aimed at describing the social determinants of knowledge related to cervical uterine cancer and proper testing being conducted by establishing the social differences with regard thereto among a population of female employees at a public university in Mexico. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was made. During the March-April 2003 period, a survey was conducted of a representative sample of the female employees who were working at a public university (n=228), 110 of whom were professors (PF) and 118 administrative staff (AS). This population was chosen due to the major socioeconomic differentiation thereof in terms of their job positions (PF versus AS), thus affording the possibility of evaluating the bearing social inequality has on health-related behavior. The survey explored three aspects: living conditions, knowledge of CUC and of proper cervical uterine cancer detection testing. Results: The female professors showed higher levels of income, schooling and knowledge of CUC and of cervical uterine cancer detection testing than the administrative staff. Income and schooling were positively related to the knowledge regarding cervical uterine cancer, cervical uterine cancer detection testing being related to the latter. Conclusions: Socioeconomic inequality among the women studied was reflected in differences in the degree of knowledge and in cervical uterine cancer detection testing being undergone. These differences are associated, above all, to the differences in the level of schooling.