Between May 1976 and April 1977, 100 patients underwent cardiac valve replacement with a unique low profile glutaraldehyde-treated porcine aortic xenograft. These patients were classified in four groups: Group I, 43 patients who underwent isolated mitral valve replacement (MVR); Group II, 27 patients who had isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR); Group III, 10 patients who had MVR and AVR; and Group IV, 20 patients who had MVR or AVR associated with other cardiac procedures. The operative mortality for Group I was 2.3% (1 of 43) and 15% (3 of 20) in Group IV. The total operative mortality was 4% (4 of 100) and the late mortality was 1.02% (1 of 96 survivors), who died apparently secondary to a cardiac arrhythmia. During a follow-up period extending for 16 months, thromboembolic complications occurred early in the postoperative period in 3% (3 of 100), one patient with neurological residual, and two patients with transient symptoms only. The embolic complications occurred only in Group I. Considering all patients in whom the mitral valves were replaced, the incidence of emboli was 4.9% (3 of 61). The 96 patients did not receive anticoagulant therapy. Reoperation was necessary in one patient because of periprosthetic leak. The incidence of endocarditis was 1.02% (1 of 96 survivors). We recommend anticoagulant therapy for eight to twelve weeks postoperatively in MVR patients after bioprosthetic insertion.