Chironomus tentans-repressor splicing factor (Ct-RSF) represses the activation of splicing by SR proteins in vitro. Ct-RSF colocalizes with the Ser-Arg-rich (SR) protein hrp45 in interchromatin granule clusters and coimmunoprecipitates with hrp45 in nuclear extracts. Ct-RSF and hrp45 can also interact directly in vitro. Ct-RSF and hrp45 are recruited together to transcribing genes and associate with growing pre-mRNAs. Ct-RSF and hrp45 colocalize at a large number of gene loci. Injection of anti-Ct-RSF antibodies into nuclei of living cells blocks association of both Ct-RSF and hrp45 with the growing pre-mRNA, whereas binding of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) to the pre-mRNA is unaffected. On the intron-rich Balbiani ring (BR) 3 pre-mRNA, hrp45 as well as U1 and U2 snRNPs bind extensively, whereas relatively little Ct-RSF is present. In contrast, the BR1 and BR2 pre-mRNAs, dominated by exon sequences, bind relatively much Ct-RSF compared with hrp45 and snRNPs. Our data suggest that Ct-RSF represses SR protein function at exons and that the assembly of spliceosomes at authentic splice sites displaces Ct-RSF locally.