Purpose To investigate the dynamic changes of tear fluid after cosmetic transcutaneous lower blepharoplasty. Design Prospective, observational case series study. Methods A total of 60 eyes of 30 patients with transcutaneous lower blepharoplasty were involved in the study. All subjects completed the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire and underwent tear film break-up time measurements and the Schirmer test before surgery and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. Tear meniscus parameters measured by optical coherence tomography were recorded. Lower lid margin reflex distance was also measured. At each time point after surgery, these parameters were compared with the baseline parameters. The incidence of dry eye and chemosis after surgery was assessed. Results The Ocular Surface Disease Index score increased significantly 1 week after surgery (P < .01). The Schirmer test values were significantly decreased 1 week postoperatively (P < .01), and they returned to baseline by 3 months. There was no significant change in tear film break-up time before and after surgery. The tear meniscus height, depth, and cross section area values were significantly increased at 1 week postoperatively, decreased at 1 month (P < .01), and returned to baseline at 3 months (P > .05). The cornea–lower eyelid angle significantly decreased at 1 week postoperatively (P < .01), increased at 1 month (P < .01), and returned to baseline by 3 months (P > .05). The lower lid margin reflex distance was increased 1 week after surgery (P < .01), and gradually recovered but had not returned to the baseline 3 months after surgery (P < .01). The increased tear meniscus height had a positive correlation with lower lid margin reflex distance. The incidence of dry eye and chemosis at 1 week postoperatively was 16.7% and 15%, respectively. Conclusions Cosmetic transcutaneous lower blepharoplasty affects ocular surface and tear fluid, which leads to dryness, tearful eyes, and chemosis. However, this influence is temporary after surgery, and the symptoms resolve within 3 months. A positive correlation between tear meniscus height and lower lid margin reflex distance was observed. Assessment of the tear meniscus with optical coherence tomography provided a quick, noninvasive, and quantitative method to investigate the dynamic changes of the tear fluid after blepharoplasty.