Many fluid flow processes in nature and technology are characterized by the presence and coexistence of two ore more phases. These two- or multiphase flows are furthermore characterized by a greater complexity of possible flow phenomena and phase interactions then in single phase flows and therefore the numerical simulation of these multiphase flows is usually demanding a much higher numerical effort. The presented work summarizes the research and development work of the author and his research group on "Numerical Methods for Multiphase Flows" at the University of Technology, Chemnitz over the last years. This work was focussed on the development and application of numerical approaches for the prediction of disperse fluid-particle flows in the field of fluid mechanics and process technology. A main part of the work presented here is concerned with the modelling of different physical phenomena in fluid-particle flows under the paradigm of the Lagrangian treatment of the particle motion in the fluid. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach has proved to be an especially well suited numerical approach for the simulation of disperse multiphase flows. On the other hand its application requires a large amount of (parallel) computational power and other computational ressources. The models described in this work give a mathematical description of the relevant forces and momentum acting on a single spherical particle in the fluid flow field, the particle-wall interaction and the particle erosion to the wall. Further models has been derived in order to take into account the influence of particle-particle collisions on the particle motion as well as the interaction of the fluid flow turbulence with the particle motion. For all these models the state-of-the-art from literature is comprehensively discussed. The main field of interest of the work presented here is in the area of development, implementation, investigation and comparative evaluation of parallelization methods for the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach for the simulation of disperse multiphase flows. Most of the priorly existing work of other authors is based on shared-memory approaches, quasi-serial or static domain decomposition approaches. These parallelization methods are mostly limited in theire applicability and scalability to parallel computer architectures with a limited degree of parallelism (a few number of very powerfull compute nodes) and to more or less homogeneous multiphase flows with uniform particle concentration distribution and minor complexity of phase interactions. This work now presents a novel parallelization method developed by the author, realizing a dynamic load balancing for the Lagrangian approach (DDD - Dynamic Domain Decomposition) and therefore leading to a substantial decrease in total computation time necessary for multiphase flow computations with the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. Finally, the developed and entirely parallelized Eulerian-Lagrangian approach MISTRAL/PartFlow-3D offers the opportunity of efficient investigation of disperse multiphase flows with higher concentrations of the disperse phase and the resulting strong phase interaction phenomena (four-way coupling).