Chronic renal failure (CRF) leads in the majority of instances to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring renal replacement therapy. Age, gender, genetics, race, hypertension, and smoking among others are factors associated with ESRD. Our interest was to evaluate the possible associations of class I and II HLA antigens with ESRD renal disease independent of other factors, among patients with CRF, having various diagnoses in the Brazilian population of the Sao Paulo state. So 21 HLA-A, 31 HLA-B, and 13 HLA-DR were detected in 105 patients who were compared with 160 healthy controls of both sexes who were not related to the patients evaluated until 2005. We calculated allelic frequencies, haplotypes frequencies, etiological fractions (EF), preventive fractions, and relative risks (RR). We compared demographic data of patients and controls. The antigens positively associated with ESRD were: HLA-A78 (RR = 30.31 and EF = 0.96) and HLA-DR11 (RR = 18.87 and EF = 0.65). The antigens HLAB14 (RR = 29.90 and EF = 0.75) was present at a significantly lower frequency among patients compared with controls. In contrast, no haplotype frequency showed statically significant associations. Further molecular studies may clarify types and subtypes of alleles involved with ESRD progression.