Abstract Two actin-modulating proteins have been purified from toad oocytes. A high-molecular weight protein, similar in structure and function to macrophage actin-binding protein, accounts for the isotropic actin-crosslinking activity in oocyte homogenates. A calcium-dependent activity in toad oocyte homogenates which shortens actin filaments is accounted for by a 95,000-dalton protein which resembles villin, an actin-severing and -bundling protein of avian epithelial brush borders. In the presence of high (⩾ μM) calcium, this protein shortens actin filaments in a concentration-dependent fashion and stimulates filament assembly when added to monomeric actin. In the absence of calcium the protein promotes the formation of actin filament bundles. Therefore, in the toad oocyte actin can be crosslinked into a network by actin-binding protein. Calcium regulation of the actin network may be mediated by villin. These results are different from those reported in echinoderm eggs.