Abstract The aggregation (fibril formation) of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is considered to be a crucial step in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inhibition of Aβ aggregation and/or decomposition of fibrils formed in aqueous solution by small compounds have been studied extensively for the prevention and treatment of AD. However, recent studies suggest that Aβ aggregation also occurs in lipid rafts mediated by a cluster of monosialoganglioside GM1. This study examined the effects of representative compounds on Aβ aggregation and fibril destabilization in the presence of GM1-containing raft-like liposomes. Among the compounds tested, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), rifampicin (RIF), tannic acid (TA), and quercetin (QUE) showed strong fibrillization inhibitory activity. NDGA and RIF inhibited the binding of Aβ to GM1 liposomes by competitively binding to the membranes and/or direct interaction with Aβ in solution, thus at least partly preventing fibrils from forming. Coincubation of Aβ with NDGA, RIF, and QUE in the presence of GM1 liposomes resulted in elongate particles, whereas the presence of TA yielded protofibrillar structures. TA and RIF also destabilized fibrils. The most potent NDGA prevented Aβ-induced toxicity in PC12 cells by inhibiting Aβ accumulation. Furthermore, a comparison of the inhibitory effects of various compounds between aqueous-phase and GM1-mediated aggregation of Aβ suggested that the two aggregation processes are not identical.