Abstract Phylogenetic analyses, using the parsimony method and the neighbor-joining method, of 31 species of the Thamnocalamus group and its allies based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences in nuclear ribosomal DNA are presented. Two species from Arundinaria and Acidosasa were used as outgroups. The ITS phylogeny strongly supports the monophyly of the Thamnocalamus group and its allies, which have pachymorph rhizomes and semelauctant synflorescences with three stamens. Within this clade, Chimonocalamus pallens was resolved in the basal position. The Thamnocalamus group, including species placed in Thamnocalamus, Fargesia (Sinarundinaria, Borinda), and Yushania, may be polyphyletic/paraphyletic according to the ITS phylogeny, but internal support was relatively low. All three sampled species of Ampelocalamus were resolved as a monophyletic group and may be related to Drepanostachyum hookerianum. Two taxa of Thamnocalamus and the species Gaoligongshania megalothyrsa were resolved as monophyletic despite their different morphological characters, but again with a low bootstrap support. Within the Fargesia yunnanensis subclade, the sister relationship of Fargesia fungosa and Fargesia edulis was supported. Another subclade, the Fargesia communis clade, was also weakly supported as monophyletic. However, further resolution within the Thamnocalamus group has not been provided by this sequence data. The results indicate that reevaluation of relationships within this group is necessary.