Groundnut is photosynthetically a highly efficient crop and its potential has been Demonstrated in India 'itself by record pod yields in excess of 9.0 t/ha obtained in small areas with good management. There remains a large gap in potential yield and realized yield at farm Level, particularly in rained agriculture, where 80% of the crop is grown. For s sustainable and Consistent gains in yield, a well-defined and focused research agenda on priority constraints and appropriate policy support addressing socio-economic and infrastructure related issues are needed. Breeding strategies addressing major abiotic (drought) and biotic (foliar diseases and aflatoxin contamination) stresses, eco-regional adaptation and enhanced yield potential and emerging tools of biotechnology (genetic transformation and marker-assisted selection) Are discussed in the paper. In India, we have not paid enough attention to the exploitation of Environment and stabilization/management of genotype x environment interaction in Groundnut. Both improved cultivars and improved cultural practices not only contribute significantly towards increase and stability of yield but they also have a synergistic effect on Productivity. The management practices should be not only location-specific but also variety specific and farmer-specific taking into account his/her socio-economic condition. Farmer-participatory varietal selection approach offers a new avenue to enhance the impact of improved varieties. Further, informal seed sector must be strengthened to meet the huge Demand for quality seed of groundnut which arises from its high seed rate and low Multiplication ratio. Collaborative research among Indian institutions must be promoted to realize the power and synergy of partnership.