The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) gag gene encodes a 53-kDa precursor (Pr53gag) that is involved in virus particle assembly and is further processed into the putative matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) functional domains in the mature virus. Gag determinants are also found in the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor. To immunologically identify the major precursors and processed products of the BIV gag gene, monospecific rabbit sera to recombinant BIV MA protein and Pr53gag and peptides predicted to correspond to the CA and NC proteins and the MA-CA cleavage site were developed and used in immunoprecipitations and immunoblots of BIV antigens. Monospecific antisera to native and recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteins were also used to identify analogous BIV Gag proteins and to determine whether cross-reactive epitopes were present in the BIV Gag precursors or processed products. The BIV MA, CA, and NC Gag proteins were identified as p16, p26, and p13, respectively. In addition to BIV Pr53gag, the major Gag precursor, two other Gag-related precursors of 170 and 49 kDa were identified that have been designated pPr170gag-pol and Pr49gag, respectively; pPr170gag-pol is the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor, and Pr49gag is the transframe Gag precursor present in pPr170gag-pol. Several alternative Gag cleavage products were also observed, including p23, which contains CA and NC determinants, and p10, which contains a peptide sequence conserved in the CA proteins of most lentiviruses. The monospecific antisera to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CA (p24) and NC (p7) proteins showed cross-reactivity to and aided in the identification of analogous BIV proteins. Based on the present data, a scheme for the processing of BIV Gag precursors is proposed.